Aspiration：[æspəˈreʃən] n. 渴望
desire to achieve things
The aspiration to neutrality findsprominent expression in our politics and low.
Prominent: ['prɒmɪnənt] adj. 突出的
In days gone by, when theonly entertainment in town on a Wednesday night was to go to the countycourthouse to listen to a prominent politician give a theatrical tiradeagainst Herbert Hoover, an eloquent speaker could pack the courthouse and havefive thousand people lined up to the railroad tracks listening to the boomingloudspeakers.
Derive: [dɪ'raɪv] v. 源于
Although neutrality derives from theliberal tradition of political thought, its province is not limited to thoseknown as liberals.
Disprove：[dɪsˈpruv] v. 反驳
prove to be false
It’s as difficult to disprove animalconsciousness as it is to prove it.
Oppose: [kən'sɝvətɪv] v. 反对
unwilling to acceptchanges and new ideas
Conservatives appeal to neutrality when opposingattempts by government to impose certain moral restraints.
Welfare: ['wɛl'fɛr] n. 福利
health, comfort,and happiness
Republicans have long complained thattaxing the rich to pay for welfare programs for the poor is a form ofcoerced charity that violates people’s freedom to choose what to do with theirown money.
Assure：[ə'ʃʊr] adj. 保证
you tell them that it is definitely true or will definitely happen,often in order to make them less worried
Democrats have long replied that governmentmust assure all citizens a decent level of income, housing, educationand health care.
Permanent: ['pɝmənənt] adj. 永久的
So familiar is this vision of freedom thatit might seem a permanent feature of the American political tradition.
Deliberating: [dɪ'lɪbərət]v. 仔细考虑
plan and decide beforehand
It involves deliberatingwith fellow citizens about the common good and helping to shape the destiny ofthe political community.
Sustain：[sə'sten] v. 维持
continue or maintain for a period oftime
For despiteits appeal, the liberal vision of freedom lacks the civic resources to sustainself-government.
Monopoly: [mə'nɑpəli] n. 垄断
Twenty-fiveyears ago be published a short book suggesting that humans didn’t have the monopolyon thoughts and feelings
Appall: [əˈpɔl] v. 使惊愕
fill with fear or alarm
Otherscientists were appalled.
Disguise: [dɪsˈɡaɪz] v. 伪装
make something appear different so that people will not know about it orwill not recognize it
Animal enrichment programs featuring mentalpuzzles disguised as toys and treats have become a standard part ofdaily life at zoos.
Misinterpret：[ˌmɪsɪnˈtɜ:rprɪt] v. 误解
understand something wrongly
Early work on primate gestures and facialexpressions was grossly misinterpreted.
Interpret: [ɪnˈtɜ:rprɪt] v. 解释
decide the meaning or significance of something
But the effort to explain what was in his head has spawned almost asmany interpretationsas the words themselves have generated politicalmovements.
Intensify: [ɪnˈtɛnsəˌfaɪ] v. 增强
make somethingbecome greater in strength, amount, or degree
In the recent findings appear to haveonly intensified the debate over animal consciousness.
Mess: [mɛs] n. 混乱
something in an untidystate
Tufts University philosopher Daniel C.Dennett declared the state of thinking on animal consciousness a “mess”.
Advocate: [ˈædvəˌket] v. 提倡
recommend something publicly/ n. 提倡者
On the one hand there are the pro-consciousness philosophers like Colin McGinn, a professor at RutgersUniversity, and Peter Singer, a professor of bioethics at Princeton and aleading animal rights advocate.